VLF Reading List


Check Our Our Extensive VLF Resources

N.B.: This list relates to my article on Observing the Sun in VLF, in RadioUser, December 2020: 34-38. 

Books and Articles on VLF

(open-source resources only)


Frequency Lists


ELF and VLF Frequency Guide: http://www.vlf.it/trond2/list.html

ELF Signals: http://www.vlf.it/kurt/elf.html

Federation of American Scientists (FAS) - VLF: https://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/c3i/vlf.htm

From 50 to 500 kHz (some in German): http://www.db9ja.de/bandplan-bis500khz.html  

Loudet VLF Station List -  https://sidstation.loudet.org/stations-list-en.xhtml

Meinberg List of Time Signal Transmitters: https://www.meinbergglobal.com/english/glossary/time-signal-transmitter.htm 

MWLIST: https://www.mwlist.org/ul_login.php; https://www.mwlist.org/vlf.php

Navy VLF Stations http://blackradios.terryo.org/documents/publications/e-ELF.pdf  

NDB List Website: Solar Section http://www.ndblist.info/solar.htm  

SID Monitoring Station A118 http://sidstation.loudet.org/stations-list-en.xhtml 

S-Meter, VLF Stations: http://www.smeter.net/stations/vlf-stations.php

S-Meter: https://www.smeter.net/stations/vlf-stations.php

Stanford University ELF/VLF Receiver: http://solar-center.stanford.edu/SID/AWESOME/docs/AWESOME%20Transmitters.pdf

THE OPEN LAB’s – ELF and VLF Frequency Guide: http://www.vlf.it/trond2/list.html

Time Signal Stations www.meinbergglobal.com/english/glossary/time-signal-transmitter.htm 

Trond Jacobsen’s List: http://www.vlf.it/trond2/list.html

UDXF –UTILITY DXers FORUM –ELF and VLF Guide: http://www.udxf.nl/ELF-VLF-GUIDE-v1.0.pdf

UDXF: VLF Guide (2001): http://www.udxf.nl/ELF-VLF-GUIDE-v1.0.pdf 

Utility-DXers Forum: http://www.udxf.nl/ELF-VLF-GUIDE-v1.0.pdf  

VLF Stations List (AAVSO): https://www.aavso.org/vlf-station-list  

VLF Transmissions (10-150 kHz): www.mwlist.org/vlf.php?kHz=27.30 

Wikipedia List of VLF Transmitters: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_VLF-transmitters  

Wikipedia List of VLF-transmitters: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_VLF-transmitters

World Frequency List 10-100 kHz (2009):  http://www.catv296.ne.jp/~ja5fp/VLFList.pdf



Adams, M. et al (2018) ‘INSPIRE 2017 Solar Eclipse VLF Field Experiment’. INSPIRE Journal, Vol. 24: 19-28

Alexander, David (2009) The Sun (Oxford: Greenwood Press)

Altgeld, C.A. (2222) The World’s Largest “Radio” Station (Sanguine) (Broadcaster’s Desktop Resource)

Aplin, K.L. et al (eds.) (2008) Planetary Atmospheric Electricity (Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer) 


Barr. R. et al (2000) ‘ELF and VLF Radio Waves’; Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 62 (2000) 1689-1718

Biagi et al (2011) ‘The European VLF/LF Radio Network […]’. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 11: 333-341

Blundell, Stephen (2012) Magnetism. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP)

Burke, B.F. and Graham-Smith, F. (1997) An Introduction to Radio Astronomy (Cambridge: CUP) 


Carey, K. (2007) Listening to Longwave (Reynoldsburg/ Ohio: Universal Radio Research)

Carey, K. (2015) More on Natural Radio (The Spectrum Monitor, May 2015: 75-77)

Carlson, W B (2015): Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age (Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press)

Cataldi, G. and D. (2013) Reception of Natural Radio Emissions in the ELF Band (INSPIRE Journal, Vol. 20/ 2013: 12-16)

Cohen, Richard (2010) Chasing the Sun (London: Simon & Schuster)

Cox, T. (2015) Sonic Wonderland: A Scientific Odyssey of Sound (London: Vintage Books)

Cristea, O. et al (2012): ‘Low-Cost Prototype Equipment for VLF Radio Wave Monitoring’ (Acta Technica Napocensis, 53,1: 47-51)


Dennison, Mike (G3XDV) (3rd ed., 2013): LF Today: A Guide to Success on the Bands below 1 MHz (Ch. 8; Bedford, RSGB)

Devi, I. et al (2008) VLF ‘Propagation Characteristics in the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide’. Earth-Planets-Space, 60, 737-741

Dolean et al. (2012): Low-Cost Prototype Equipment for VLF Radio Wave Monitoring (Acta Technica Napocensis, 53; 1: 47)


Fielding, J. (2014) ‘Getting Started in Radio Astronomy Part 1’ (RadCom, Vol. 90; No. 11; November 2014: 30-32)

Fielding, J. (ZS5JF) (2011) Amateur Radio Astronomy (Bedford: RSGB)

Friese, W. (2004) Schumann-Resonanzwellen […] Funkamateur 11/04: 1111

-- (2004) Sfericsempfang (3 volumes, Dessau: Wilhelm Herbst Verlag)

-- (2006) ‘Test des VLF-Power-Ferritmoduls LFM/5-50/24 von BAZ’ (Funkamateur 1/06: 25)

-- (2007) Außergewöhnliche Empfangsantennen (Baden-Baden: Siebel/ vth)

-- (2007) Sferics – Faszinierende Natürliche Radiowellen (Berlin: Funkamateur Library, Vol. 18)

-- (2007) ‘Empfangssysteme zum Detektieren von Gewittern’ (Funkamateur 02/ 2008: 149-51)


Funkamateure Dresden DD7NT (2012) SAQ auf Längstwelle (2012)


Galejs, J. (1965) ‘Schumann Resonances’ Radio Science Journal of Research NBSjUSNC- URSI Vol. 69D, No.8, August 1965

Goldsmith, M. (2018) Waves. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP)

Golub, L. (2014) Nearest Star: The Surprising Science of Our Sun (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

Gulley, R. (2020) ‘Radio Propagation Banners Explained’ The Spectrum Monitor, May 2020: 21-24


Helliwell R.A. (1965/ 2006) Whistlers and Related Ionospheric Phenomena (Mineola, New York: Dover Publications Inc.) 

Hood, T. (2014) ‘In the Beginning’ The Spectrum Monitor, January 2014: 45 (see also: CQ, April 2015: 104)

-- ‘The Ionosphere’ The Spectrum Monitor, February 2015: 62

Hunsucker, R.D. (1991/2011): Radio Techniques for Monitoring the Terrestrial Ionosphere (Springer)


Jago, L. (2001): The Northern Lights (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) 

Jian S.; Georgeakopoulos, S. (2011) EM Wave Propagation into Fresh Water; Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 3: 261-266

Judge, P. (2020) The Sun. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP)


Kahn, D. (2013) Earth Sound, Earth Signal (Berkeley: University of California Press)

Kanal, S.: The Effect of Solar Flares on the VLF Radio Waves transmitted in the Ionosphere (Presentation)

Kimpfbeck, T. (2007) DX-Empfang vom Schreibtisch aus, mit Ferrit- und Loop-Antennen (Funkamateur 8/07: 838)

Klawitter, G. and Herold, K. (2000) Langwellen und Längstwellenfunk (Baden-Baden: Siebel/ vth)


Lashley, J. (2010) The Radio Sky and How to Observe It (London: Springer) (Chapter 9 on VLF Solar Monitor)

Launius, R.D.; Fleming, J.R. and DeVorkin, D.H. (2010): Globalizing Polar Science (New York: Palgrave/Macmillan)

Lutz, H. (2004) Längstwellenempfang mit dem PC (Marburg: beam-Verlag)

 -- (2013) ‘Low Frequency Propagation’; in: Dennison, Mike (G3XDV) (3rd ed., 2013): LF Today […] (RSGB): 129-140


Melia, A. (2009) ‘Understanding LF Propagation’; Radcom, September 2009: 32; October 2009: 22; November 2009: 32

Moldovan et al (2012) The INFREP European VLF/LF Radio Monitoring Network […] Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 64; No.1: 263-274

Moldwin, Mark (2008) An Introduction to Space Weather (Cambridge: CUP) (excellent introduction)

Money, Paul (2012) ‘Sounds of the Aurora’. Sky at Night, November 2012: 44-45

Nelson, Stan (2014): Meteor Detection in the 21st Century (The Spectrum Monitor, February 2014: 61-64)

Newton, Peter (2017): ‘VLF in Australia’. RadioUser, March 2017: 28-30


O’Sullivan, S. (2014) ‘Monitoring the Sun Using VLF’ (RadioUser, April 2014: 54-57)

-- (2015) ‘Band II Dxing’ (Radio User, May 2015: 48-51)

Palmer, P.I. (2017) The Atmosphere. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP)

Poole, Ian (2004) Radio Propagation: Principles and Practice (RSGB)


Rajagopalen, A.S. et al (2013) ‘Solar Activity Monitoring Through Real-Time Recording of VLF Wave Amplitude’ (International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology; Vol. 3, No.1; October 2013: 253-261

Reeve, W.D. ‘Listening to Jupiter’s Radio Storms’ RadioUser, September 2009: 32 (Part One); October 2009: 34 (Part Two)

--  (2010) ‘Listening to the Sun’s Radio Storms’, RadioUser, March 2010: 34 (see also entry under websites, below)

--  (2019) ‘Monitoring LF Propagation with a Software-Defined radio Receiver […]  (see websites, below)

Richards, J.A. (2008) Radio Wave Propagation (Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer)

Riegler, T. (2007) Radiohören auf Lang- und Mittelwelle (Baden-Baden: Siebel vth ISBN 978-3-88180-663-3)

Romero, Renato (2007) Radio Nature: The Reception and Study of Naturally Originating Radio Signals (RSGB)


Schlegel, K. and Füllekrug, M. (2002/ 2007) 50 Years of Schumann Resonance (Physik in unserer Zeit, 33(6), 256-26)

Schneider, D. AD4CC (1994) Mother Nature’s Radio

Singh. H.B. and Pal, R. (1993) Submarine Communications (Defence Science Journal 43; 1: 43-51)


Taylor, P. O. (2008) Observing the Sun (Cambridge University Press)

Tesla, Nikola (2011): My Inventions and Other Writings (London: Penguin)

Times of India (2014) ‘Navy Gets New Facility to Communicate with Nuclear Submarines Prowling Underwater’ (July 2014)


United Kingdom Radio Astronomy Association (UKRAA): UKRAA VLF Receiver Manual (2015-2020)


Wallace, J. (2010) Amateur Radio Astronomy Projects – A Whistler Radio (QEX, March/ April 2010: 20-23)

Wei-Yan Pan and Kai Li (2014 ed.): Propagation of SLF/ VLF Electromagnetic Waves (Springer)

Welsh, J. (2012) The Sun, Radcom, October 2012: 38

Wiessala, G (2012): ‘Radio in Time and Space: Time Signal Stations’ (RadioUser, October 2012: 8)

-- ‘Radio in Space and Time – Whistlers, Sferics and Tweeks’ (RadioUser, January 2013: 8-13)

-- ‘Signals from Space and the Radio Sun’ (RadioUser, February 2014: 54-63)

-- ‘Develop a Propagation Monitoring Routine; (RadioUser, February 2015: 52-57)

-- ‘VLF: Windows on Our World (and Beyond) Part 1’ (RadioUser, September 2015: 50-55)

-- ‘VLF: Windows on Our World (and Beyond) Part 2’ (RadioUser, January 2016: 52-57)

-- ‘Submarines and the Sun on VLF’ (RadioUser, November 2016: 33-37)

--  ‘A Solar Flare Monitor on VLF’ (https://www.radioenthusiast.co.uk/articles/a-solar-flare-monitor-on-vlf)

Windridge, M. (2018) Aurora – In Search of the Northern Lights (William Collins).


Online Articles and Websites


Alexanderson Society: http://alexander.n.se 

Alpha & Omega Stations www.auroralchorus.com/omega.htm   

Alpha Stations: Alpha: www.vlf.it/alphatrond/alpha.htm   

Alvin Lucier: www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxUvMl_IxoQ  

American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO): http://www.aavso.org/vlf-station-list  

American Meteor Society (AMS): http://www.amsmeteors.org/

American Radio Relay League (ARRL; Experimental VLF): http://www.arrl.org/news/hams-experimental-vlf-signals-heard-in-the-uk-europe  

Anderson, et al (2020) ‘Detection of VLF Attenuation in the EarthIonosphere Waveguide Caused by XClass Solar Flares Using a Global Lightning Location Network’: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1029/2019SW002408

Antennas for VLF: https://www.nslijhs.com/A-COMPACT-VLF-ANTENNA-OPTIMISED-FOR-16-To-24Khz

Anthorn (European LORAN-C Website): http://www.loran-europe.eu/viewpage.php?page_id=24

Argo (Software): http://www.weaksignals.com 

ASTRON: The International LOFAR Telescope: https://www.astron.nl/lofar-telescope/lofar-telescope

Astronomy-Log: List of VLF Transmitters: https://astronomylog.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/vlf-stations-list.pdf 

Audio-Gallery of Meteor Events (AMS): http://www.amsmeteors.org/audio/index.html

Aurora (Auroral Sounds) www.aalto.fi/en/current/current_archive/news/2012-07-09  / http://research.spa.aalto.fi/projects/aurora

Aurora Service Radio: http://www.aurora-service.eu/radio/

Auroral Chorus (Stephen P. McGreevy, USA): http://www.auroralchorus.com 

AWESOME Project: http://nova.stanford.edu/~vlf/IHY_Test/TechDocs/AWESOME%20Transmitters.pdf


British Astronomical Association (BAA, Radio Astronomy Group) http://www.britastro.org/radio  

BAA (Radio Astronomy Group): VLF Observations: https://www.britastro.org/node/20957

Bakker, Roelof (accessed 2015): The PA0RDT-Mini-Whip: http://dl1dbc.net/SAQ/Mwhip/pa0rdt-Mini-Whip.pdf 

BAZ Spezialantennen: http://www.spezialantennen.eu 

Bennett, R. (2000) The INSPIRE VLF-£ Receiver: Theory of Operation: https://tinyurl.com/qfbcm9j

Beta Stations: www.vlf.it/russianvlf/russianvlf.htm 

Bianchi, C. and Meloni, A. (2007) Terrestrial Natural and Man-Made Electromagnetic Noise: https://tinyurl.com/y8gmyvuk

Bradley, M. (2013) Monitoring Solar Flares by Radio Astronomy: https://tinyurl.com/yb9vw454

British Astronomical Association: https://britastro.org/node/20957

Butler, L. VK5BR (187) Understanding Underwater Radio Communication: http://users.tpg.com.au/ldbutler/Underwater_Communication.pdf


Cestron (VLF Systems for Submarine Communication):http://www.cestron.de/VLF-Systems

Clam Lake, Wisconsin: http://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/c3i/fs_clam_lake_elf2003.pdf

Cook, J. (2020) Introduction to VLF Observations of Solar Activity: https://www.britastro.org/node/20957


Detection of Whistlers in Belgium (Poster): http://plasmon.elte.hu/publication/4.poster-conference-presentations/Darrouzet.pdf

Deutscher Amateur Radio Klub e.V. (VLF Reception): http://www.darc-c03.de/bastelprojekte-c03/146-saq

Drumgrange Communications www.drumgrange.com/product-areas/vlf-communications.aspx 

DST Index (NOAA) www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/GEOMAG/dst.html     

Dual-Frequency Observations of Diurnal Fading on DHO38: http://df6nm.bplaced.net/VLF/2006/vlf_DHO_dualfreq.htm

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Earth Current Communications: https://pe2bz.philpem.me.uk/Comm/-%20ELF-VLF/-%20ELF-Theory/Th-115-EarthCurrents/com.pdf

Eddy, J. A. (2017) The Sun, the Earth and Near-Earth Space (NASA): https://tinyurl.com/yc9kpwbj

Ekmekçi, E. (2004): VLF Antennas (Nikola Tesla Institute): http://www.institutotesla.org/pdf/Tesla-Theory-9.pdf  

Electronics Gallery of VLF Signals: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Electronics/Gallery_of_VLF-signals  

ELF Clam Lake Fact Sheet: https://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/c3i/fs_clam_lake_elf2003.pdf

e-LORAN Definition Document: http://ila.rin.org.uk/otherarchives/2007%20eLoran%20Definition%20Document-1.0.pdf  

European Loran-C Network: http://www.loran-europe.eu/news.php

Exeter Observatory (VLF) Solar Flare Detection http://www.exeterobservatory.com/vlf-solar-flare-detection  


Federation of American Scientists (VLF): http://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/c3i/vlf.htm 

Freund, F. (2005) Cracking the Code of Pre-Earthquake Signals: https://www.space.com/1695-cracking-code-pre-earthquake-signals.html


Geonics Ltd. (Commercial VLF Receivers): http://www.geonics.com/html/vlfsystems.html 

Georghita, M. et al (2009); Testing a New Installed VLF/LF Radio Receiver […] https://tinyurl.com/y8e3dueh

Goliath LW Transmitter (Historical): www.cdvandt.org/goliath.htm and http://uboat.net/articles/35.html

Grahn LW/ VLF Antennas (Germany): http://www.grahn-spezialantennen.de/index.html

Guzel, E. and Canyilmaz, M.: ‘Sub-ionospheric VLF Perturbations […] https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.2733175 


Hagenuk: https://www.udt-global.com/__media/libraries/operational-drivers-and-imperatives/114---Christian-Gast-Slides.pdf

Halley VLF Receiver (British Antarctic Survey): https://www.bas.ac.uk/polar-operations/sites-and-facilities/facility/halley/vlf-receiver

Hobby Space (Space Radio) http://www.hobbyspace.com/Radio/radio2.html


i-LOFAR (Brochure): http://lofar.ie/i-lofar-brochure-launched 

INSPIRE (NASA) Project (including Newsletter): http://theinspireproject.org 

Institute of Navigation: http://www.ion.org 

International LORAN Association (ILA): http://www.loran.org 

Ionospheric Radio Lab (University of Florida, UF): www.vlf.ece.ufl.edu   


Jacobsen, T: ZEVS, The Russian 82 Hz ELF Transmitter: www.vlf.it/zevs/zevs.htm

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13646826 

Joyce Hinterding: www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Zls3R3pMwk


Kamp, P.-H. (2000) SDR and VLF Time Signals:  https://www.tapr.org/pdf/DCC2003-SDR-WWVB-Kamp.pdf 

Kavanagh: (2011) Probing Geo-space with VLF Radio Signals: https://tinyurl.com/ptr7z7g

Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917): www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/sphaera/issue7/articl6.htm

Lapthorn, R. G3XBM (2012): VLF Amateur Radio (Presentation): https://tinyurl.com/y7j2e4lt

LF Engineering: www.lfengineering.com 

Links to VLF Articles http://www.science.gov/topicpages/v/vlf+radio+wave.html

LOFAR (Ireland) http://www.lofar.ie 

LOFAR (Low-Frequency Array for Radio Astronomy) http://www.lofar.org 

LOFAR (UK) http://www.lofar-uk.org 

LOFAR Telescope http://www.astron.nl/general/lofar/lofar 

Loran-C (100kHz): http://www.loran-history.info 

Lualualei US Navy VLF Transmitter: http://lualualei1959.com/newpix/lllvhf.htm


Melia, A., and Nichols, S. (2008/09) ‘Understanding LF and HF Propagation’: http://tinyurl.com/24yck6w   

Moore Observatory (USA): http://moondog.astro.louisville.edu

Morgan, D.: The Generation of VLF Emissions by Meteors: https://tinyurl.com/y98z4z34

Mother Nature’s Radio (Rob’s Web): http://www.robkalmeijer.nl/techniek/electronica/radiotechniek/hambladen/qst/1994/01/page49/index.html


Natural Radio Lab: http://naturalradiolab.com

Natural Radio/ VLF Discussion Group: https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/VLF_Group/conversations/topics/614?l=1  

Navy Shore Station LF & VLF Transmitters (History): www.virhistory.com/navy/xmtr-vlf.htm

Navy Shore Station LF & VLF Transmitters http://www.virhistory.com/navy/xmtr-vlf.htm   


Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) http://www.astron.nl/

NICT (Japan): www.nict.go.jp/en/data/nict-news/index.html#block_top1

Nwanko, V.U.J: ‘Probing Geomagnetic Storm-Driven Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Dynamics […]’: https://tinyurl.com/ybyslrcv 


Observing the Atmosphere with VLF Radio: http://abelian.org/sid 

Observing the Sun in VLF (Journal of the British Astronomy Association, Vol.118, 3 (2008): 124 http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/2008JBAA..118..124C

Omega Stations: www.auroralchorus.com/omega.htm 


Price, C. and Blum, MN. (2000): ELF/VLF Radiation Produced by the 1999 Leonid Meteors: https://leonid.arc.nasa.gov/MS025.pdf

Project Sanguine: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Sanguine  


Radio Astrolab: http://www.radioastrolab.com/radio-astronomy/bands-elf-vlf-lf-and-nature-radio 

Radio Communications of German U-Boats in WW1 and WW2 (History): http://uboat.net/articles/35.html  

Radio Jove: http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov 

Radio Sky Pipe: www.radiosky.com/skypipeishere.html 

Rault, J.-L. (2000) Searching for Meteor ELF/ VLF Radiation: https://www.imo.net/imcs/imc2009/pdf/rault_imc2009.pdf

Reception of Submarine Communications Systems: www.vlf.it/submarine/sbmarine.html

Reeve, W. D. (2010): Application of the UKRAA Very Low Frequency Receiver System: https://tinyurl.com/q5dltk7

Reeve, W. D. (2019): Monitoring LF Propagation with an SDR: https://tinyurl.com/y69y572a

Reeve, W.D.: Publications: http://www.reeve.com/RadioScience/Radio%20Astronomy%20Publications/Articles_Papers.htm

Romero, R. Radio Waves Below 2kHz (Italy): http://www.vlf.it 

Royal Institute of Navigation (UK): http://www.rin.org.uk 

Rugby Radio (History): http://www.xeropage.co.uk/g3nyk/rugbyrs.htm 

Russian Central Research Institute of Physical and Technical Measurements (VNIIFTRI): http://www.vniiftri.ru/index.php/en 


SAQ (Grimeton) Transmitter (17.2kHz, a UNESCO World Heritage Site) http://alexander.n.se 

SAQrx Software VLF Receiver (SM6LKM):  https://sites.google.com/site/sm6lkm/saqrx 

Schiffhauer, N. (2018)’ Direction Finding with TDoA on KiwiSDR Net: An Introduction’ http://www.udxf.nl/tdoa_firstexperiences5.pdf

Schiffhauer, N. (2015) Observations on the Solar Eclipse (2015): www.satsignal.eu/Radio/Solar_Eclipse_DK8OK.pdf

Schlegel, K. and Füllekrug, M. (2002/ 2007) 50 Years of Schumann Resonance (Physik in unserer Zeit, 33(6), 256-26) 

Schmitter, E.D. (2013) Modelling […] Ionosphere Changes […]; Annales Geophysicae 31:765-773; https://tinyurl.com/y97r45tf

Schuman Resonance www.vlf.it/Schumann/schumann.htm   

Science Gov (USA): www.science.gov/topicpages/v/vlf+radio+wave.html

SFS/TRGRAM (Speech-Spectrogram Display software) : www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/resource/sfs/rtgram

Singh, R. et al (2009) VLF Studies […] in Indian Low-Latitude Regions […] https://tinyurl.com/y8v4ckh4

Siple (VLF) Station, Antarctica: http://vlf.stanford.edu/research/vlf-transmitter-siple-station-antarctica 

Smiley Antennas (VLF): www.smileyantenna.com  

Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers (SARA, USA) http://www.radio-astronomy.org 

Spaceweather.com: http://spaceweather.com  

Spectran (Version2): http://www.sdradio.eu/weaksignals/spectran.html 

Spectrum Lab: www.qsl.net/dl4yhf/spectra1.html   

Square Kilometre Array http://www.skatelescope.org 

Stanford VLF Group http://vlf.stanford.edu/research/introduction-vlf 

Stations, ITU Licenses and Services below 22 kHz (Renato Romero) http://www.vlf.it/itulist/itulist.htm

Stormwise Antennas: www.stormwise.com  (USA and Canada deliveries only)

Sub-9kHz Amateur Radio: https://sites.google.com/site/sub9khz  

Submarine Communication (Grimeton Website): http://www.grimeton.info/submarine_communication.html


Tesla’s Colorado Springs Lightning Observations: http://www.tfcbooks.com/articles/tws6.htm

Twente University WebSDR: http://websdr.ewi.utwente.nl:8901 


Ulas, M. et al (2002) Precursors of Earthquakes: VLF Signals-Ionosphere Relation: https://tinyurl.com/yddez3mg 

UNESCO: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1134

University of Louisville (Moore Observatory): VLF Monitor http://moondog.astro.louisville.edu/index.html 

Unknown ELF-Signals and Ground Currents: www.vlf.it/kurt/elf.html  

US Navy: VLF, LW and MW (1973): http://www.navy-radio.com/manuals/0101-1xx/0101_113-02.pdf 

US VLF Transmitters: http://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/c3i/vlf.htm  


VERSIM Group: http://www.iugg.org/IAGA/iaga_ursi/versim/index.html 

Viehl, E. (2015): Empfang Sehr Langer Wellen (VLF Reception): www.viehl-radio.de/homeda/vlf.html

VLF & LF Stations List (W.D. Reeve, Alaska): http://www.reeve.com/Documents/Articles%20Papers/Reeve_VLF-LFStationList.pdf

VLF Amateur Radio Europe: www.amateurradio.eu/tag/vlf  

VLF Frequency Spectrum https://physics.info/em-spectrum 

VLF Live Streams http://abelian.org/vlf

VLF Poster (British Astronomical Association): www.britastro.org/radio/downloads/VLF%20Poster.pdf 

VLF Propagation http://lasp.colorado.edu/space_weather/dsttemerin/dsttemerin.html 

VLF Receivers: www.naturalradiolab.com 

VLF Resources (Website-Box): http://website-box.net/se-keyword/vlf+receiver  

VLF Software Options: https://sites.google.com/site/sub9khz/software 

VLF Sounds: http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/inspire.html 


WADI: Very Low Frequency:  http://quality-geophysics.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/QG-Method-VLF-Wadi.pdf  

Westcott, A. (2003): Naturally-Occurring VLF Radio Signals: http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/andyspatch/vlf.htm

Whistler Reception: http://www.techlib.com/electronics/vlfwhistle.htm 

Williams, P. et al (2000) e-Loran and Amateur Radio […]: http://www.professordavidlast.co.uk/cms_items/f20090301150839.pdf

World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN): http://wwlln.net/new 


XiVero GmbH VLF Software Receiver (Germany): www.xivero.com/vlfreceiver  


ZEVS –Russian 82Hz ELF Transmitter (T. Jacobsen): www.vlf.it/zevs/zevs.htm 



Journals, Newsletters and Magazines:


EOS Magazine (American Geophysical Union): https://eos.org/current-issues  

Funkempfang.de: http://www.hurcks.de  

INSPIRE Journal (NASA, Archive) https://theinspireproject.org/default.asp?contentID=21

Lowdown (Archive): http://naturalradiolab.com/lowdown-archive

Monitoring Times (now: TSM, see below)

Practical Wireless (UK) www.radioenthusiast.co.uk

RadCom (UK) http://rsgb.org/mai 

RadioUser (UK) www.radioenthusiast.co.uk 

RagaZine https://www.britastro.org/radio/downloads.html

SAQ Grimeton Newsletter https://alexander.n.se/category/news/?lang=en

Space Weather Quarterly https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/swq.24 (latest issue)

Spectrum Monitor (USA): https://www.thespectrummonitor.com  

VERSIM Newsletter www.iugg.org/IAGA/iaga_ursi/versim/newsletter.html



Previously in RadioUser


Gulley, R. (2020) ‘Radio Propagation Banners Explained’, RadioUser, October 2020: 52-56

Newton, P. (2017) VLF in Australia: RadioUser, March 2017: 28-30

(2019) SAQ Grimeton and VLF Monitoring: RadioUser, December 2019: 32-35

Wiessala, G. (2013) Radio in Time and Space – Whistlers, Sferics and Tweeks, RadioUser, January 2013: 8

(2014) Monitoring the Sun Using VLF; RadioUser, April 2014: 54

(2014) Signals from Space and the Radio Sun; RadioUser, February 2014: 54

(2015) VLF: Windows on Our World, and Beyond (Part 1): RadioUser, September 2015: 50

(2016) Submarines and the Sun – On VLF: RadioUser, November 2016: 33

(2018) A Rare Catch: Grimeton SAQ: RadioUser, June 2018: 33

(2018) In the Basement Band: VLF Frequencies: RadioUser, July 2018: 49

(2019) Re-visiting SAQ Grimeton: RadioUser, August 2019: 24.


GW, 23rd November 2020