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VLF Reading List


Check Our Our Extensive VLF Resources

N.B.: This list relates to my article on Observing the Sun in VLF, in RadioUser, December 2020: 34-38. 

Books and Articles on VLF

(open-source resources only)


Frequency Lists


ELF and VLF Frequency Guide:

ELF Signals:

Federation of American Scientists (FAS) - VLF:

From 50 to 500 kHz (some in German):  

Loudet VLF Station List -

Meinberg List of Time Signal Transmitters: 


Navy VLF Stations  

NDB List Website: Solar Section  

SID Monitoring Station A118 

S-Meter, VLF Stations:


Stanford University ELF/VLF Receiver:

THE OPEN LAB’s – ELF and VLF Frequency Guide:

Time Signal Stations 

Trond Jacobsen’s List:


UDXF: VLF Guide (2001): 

Utility-DXers Forum:  

VLF Stations List (AAVSO):  

VLF Transmissions (10-150 kHz): 

Wikipedia List of VLF Transmitters:  

Wikipedia List of VLF-transmitters:

World Frequency List 10-100 kHz (2009):



Adams, M. et al (2018) ‘INSPIRE 2017 Solar Eclipse VLF Field Experiment’. INSPIRE Journal, Vol. 24: 19-28

Alexander, David (2009) The Sun (Oxford: Greenwood Press)

Altgeld, C.A. (2222) The World’s Largest “Radio” Station (Sanguine) (Broadcaster’s Desktop Resource)

Aplin, K.L. et al (eds.) (2008) Planetary Atmospheric Electricity (Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer) 


Barr. R. et al (2000) ‘ELF and VLF Radio Waves’; Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 62 (2000) 1689-1718

Biagi et al (2011) ‘The European VLF/LF Radio Network […]’. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 11: 333-341

Blundell, Stephen (2012) Magnetism. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP)

Burke, B.F. and Graham-Smith, F. (1997) An Introduction to Radio Astronomy (Cambridge: CUP) 


Carey, K. (2007) Listening to Longwave (Reynoldsburg/ Ohio: Universal Radio Research)

Carey, K. (2015) More on Natural Radio (The Spectrum Monitor, May 2015: 75-77)

Carlson, W B (2015): Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age (Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press)

Cataldi, G. and D. (2013) Reception of Natural Radio Emissions in the ELF Band (INSPIRE Journal, Vol. 20/ 2013: 12-16)

Cohen, Richard (2010) Chasing the Sun (London: Simon & Schuster)

Cox, T. (2015) Sonic Wonderland: A Scientific Odyssey of Sound (London: Vintage Books)

Cristea, O. et al (2012): ‘Low-Cost Prototype Equipment for VLF Radio Wave Monitoring’ (Acta Technica Napocensis, 53,1: 47-51)


Dennison, Mike (G3XDV) (3rd ed., 2013): LF Today: A Guide to Success on the Bands below 1 MHz (Ch. 8; Bedford, RSGB)

Devi, I. et al (2008) VLF ‘Propagation Characteristics in the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide’. Earth-Planets-Space, 60, 737-741

Dolean et al. (2012): Low-Cost Prototype Equipment for VLF Radio Wave Monitoring (Acta Technica Napocensis, 53; 1: 47)


Fielding, J. (2014) ‘Getting Started in Radio Astronomy Part 1’ (RadCom, Vol. 90; No. 11; November 2014: 30-32)

Fielding, J. (ZS5JF) (2011) Amateur Radio Astronomy (Bedford: RSGB)

Friese, W. (2004) Schumann-Resonanzwellen […] Funkamateur 11/04: 1111

-- (2004) Sfericsempfang (3 volumes, Dessau: Wilhelm Herbst Verlag)

-- (2006) ‘Test des VLF-Power-Ferritmoduls LFM/5-50/24 von BAZ’ (Funkamateur 1/06: 25)

-- (2007) Außergewöhnliche Empfangsantennen (Baden-Baden: Siebel/ vth)

-- (2007) Sferics – Faszinierende Natürliche Radiowellen (Berlin: Funkamateur Library, Vol. 18)

-- (2007) ‘Empfangssysteme zum Detektieren von Gewittern’ (Funkamateur 02/ 2008: 149-51)


Funkamateure Dresden DD7NT (2012) SAQ auf Längstwelle (2012)


Galejs, J. (1965) ‘Schumann Resonances’ Radio Science Journal of Research NBSjUSNC- URSI Vol. 69D, No.8, August 1965

Goldsmith, M. (2018) Waves. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP)

Golub, L. (2014) Nearest Star: The Surprising Science of Our Sun (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

Gulley, R. (2020) ‘Radio Propagation Banners Explained’ The Spectrum Monitor, May 2020: 21-24


Helliwell R.A. (1965/ 2006) Whistlers and Related Ionospheric Phenomena (Mineola, New York: Dover Publications Inc.) 

Hood, T. (2014) ‘In the Beginning’ The Spectrum Monitor, January 2014: 45 (see also: CQ, April 2015: 104)

-- ‘The Ionosphere’ The Spectrum Monitor, February 2015: 62

Hunsucker, R.D. (1991/2011): Radio Techniques for Monitoring the Terrestrial Ionosphere (Springer)


Jago, L. (2001): The Northern Lights (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) 

Jian S.; Georgeakopoulos, S. (2011) EM Wave Propagation into Fresh Water; Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 3: 261-266

Judge, P. (2020) The Sun. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP)


Kahn, D. (2013) Earth Sound, Earth Signal (Berkeley: University of California Press)

Kanal, S.: The Effect of Solar Flares on the VLF Radio Waves transmitted in the Ionosphere (Presentation)

Kimpfbeck, T. (2007) DX-Empfang vom Schreibtisch aus, mit Ferrit- und Loop-Antennen (Funkamateur 8/07: 838)

Klawitter, G. and Herold, K. (2000) Langwellen und Längstwellenfunk (Baden-Baden: Siebel/ vth)


Lashley, J. (2010) The Radio Sky and How to Observe It (London: Springer) (Chapter 9 on VLF Solar Monitor)

Launius, R.D.; Fleming, J.R. and DeVorkin, D.H. (2010): Globalizing Polar Science (New York: Palgrave/Macmillan)

Lutz, H. (2004) Längstwellenempfang mit dem PC (Marburg: beam-Verlag)

 -- (2013) ‘Low Frequency Propagation’; in: Dennison, Mike (G3XDV) (3rd ed., 2013): LF Today […] (RSGB): 129-140


Melia, A. (2009) ‘Understanding LF Propagation’; Radcom, September 2009: 32; October 2009: 22; November 2009: 32

Moldovan et al (2012) The INFREP European VLF/LF Radio Monitoring Network […] Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 64; No.1: 263-274

Moldwin, Mark (2008) An Introduction to Space Weather (Cambridge: CUP) (excellent introduction)

Money, Paul (2012) ‘Sounds of the Aurora’. Sky at Night, November 2012: 44-45

Nelson, Stan (2014): Meteor Detection in the 21st Century (The Spectrum Monitor, February 2014: 61-64)

Newton, Peter (2017): ‘VLF in Australia’. RadioUser, March 2017: 28-30


O’Sullivan, S. (2014) ‘Monitoring the Sun Using VLF’ (RadioUser, April 2014: 54-57)

-- (2015) ‘Band II Dxing’ (Radio User, May 2015: 48-51)

Palmer, P.I. (2017) The Atmosphere. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP)

Poole, Ian (2004) Radio Propagation: Principles and Practice (RSGB)


Rajagopalen, A.S. et al (2013) ‘Solar Activity Monitoring Through Real-Time Recording of VLF Wave Amplitude’ (International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology; Vol. 3, No.1; October 2013: 253-261

Reeve, W.D. ‘Listening to Jupiter’s Radio Storms’ RadioUser, September 2009: 32 (Part One); October 2009: 34 (Part Two)

--  (2010) ‘Listening to the Sun’s Radio Storms’, RadioUser, March 2010: 34 (see also entry under websites, below)

--  (2019) ‘Monitoring LF Propagation with a Software-Defined radio Receiver […]  (see websites, below)

Richards, J.A. (2008) Radio Wave Propagation (Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer)

Riegler, T. (2007) Radiohören auf Lang- und Mittelwelle (Baden-Baden: Siebel vth ISBN 978-3-88180-663-3)

Romero, Renato (2007) Radio Nature: The Reception and Study of Naturally Originating Radio Signals (RSGB)


Schlegel, K. and Füllekrug, M. (2002/ 2007) 50 Years of Schumann Resonance (Physik in unserer Zeit, 33(6), 256-26)

Schneider, D. AD4CC (1994) Mother Nature’s Radio

Singh. H.B. and Pal, R. (1993) Submarine Communications (Defence Science Journal 43; 1: 43-51)


Taylor, P. O. (2008) Observing the Sun (Cambridge University Press)

Tesla, Nikola (2011): My Inventions and Other Writings (London: Penguin)

Times of India (2014) ‘Navy Gets New Facility to Communicate with Nuclear Submarines Prowling Underwater’ (July 2014)


United Kingdom Radio Astronomy Association (UKRAA): UKRAA VLF Receiver Manual (2015-2020)


Wallace, J. (2010) Amateur Radio Astronomy Projects – A Whistler Radio (QEX, March/ April 2010: 20-23)

Wei-Yan Pan and Kai Li (2014 ed.): Propagation of SLF/ VLF Electromagnetic Waves (Springer)

Welsh, J. (2012) The Sun, Radcom, October 2012: 38

Wiessala, G (2012): ‘Radio in Time and Space: Time Signal Stations’ (RadioUser, October 2012: 8)

-- ‘Radio in Space and Time – Whistlers, Sferics and Tweeks’ (RadioUser, January 2013: 8-13)

-- ‘Signals from Space and the Radio Sun’ (RadioUser, February 2014: 54-63)

-- ‘Develop a Propagation Monitoring Routine; (RadioUser, February 2015: 52-57)

-- ‘VLF: Windows on Our World (and Beyond) Part 1’ (RadioUser, September 2015: 50-55)

-- ‘VLF: Windows on Our World (and Beyond) Part 2’ (RadioUser, January 2016: 52-57)

-- ‘Submarines and the Sun on VLF’ (RadioUser, November 2016: 33-37)

--  ‘A Solar Flare Monitor on VLF’ (

Windridge, M. (2018) Aurora – In Search of the Northern Lights (William Collins).


Online Articles and Websites


Alexanderson Society: 

Alpha & Omega Stations   

Alpha Stations: Alpha:   

Alvin Lucier:  

American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO):  

American Meteor Society (AMS):

American Radio Relay League (ARRL; Experimental VLF):  

Anderson, et al (2020) ‘Detection of VLF Attenuation in the EarthIonosphere Waveguide Caused by XClass Solar Flares Using a Global Lightning Location Network’:

Antennas for VLF:

Anthorn (European LORAN-C Website):

Argo (Software): 

ASTRON: The International LOFAR Telescope:

Astronomy-Log: List of VLF Transmitters: 

Audio-Gallery of Meteor Events (AMS):

Aurora (Auroral Sounds)  /

Aurora Service Radio:

Auroral Chorus (Stephen P. McGreevy, USA): 

AWESOME Project:


British Astronomical Association (BAA, Radio Astronomy Group)  

BAA (Radio Astronomy Group): VLF Observations:

Bakker, Roelof (accessed 2015): The PA0RDT-Mini-Whip: 

BAZ Spezialantennen: 

Bennett, R. (2000) The INSPIRE VLF-£ Receiver: Theory of Operation:

Beta Stations: 

Bianchi, C. and Meloni, A. (2007) Terrestrial Natural and Man-Made Electromagnetic Noise:

Bradley, M. (2013) Monitoring Solar Flares by Radio Astronomy:

British Astronomical Association:

Butler, L. VK5BR (187) Understanding Underwater Radio Communication:


Cestron (VLF Systems for Submarine Communication):

Clam Lake, Wisconsin:

Cook, J. (2020) Introduction to VLF Observations of Solar Activity:


Detection of Whistlers in Belgium (Poster):

Deutscher Amateur Radio Klub e.V. (VLF Reception):

Drumgrange Communications 

DST Index (NOAA)     

Dual-Frequency Observations of Diurnal Fading on DHO38:

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Earth Current Communications:

Eddy, J. A. (2017) The Sun, the Earth and Near-Earth Space (NASA):

Ekmekçi, E. (2004): VLF Antennas (Nikola Tesla Institute):  

Electronics Gallery of VLF Signals:  

ELF Clam Lake Fact Sheet:

e-LORAN Definition Document:  

European Loran-C Network:

Exeter Observatory (VLF) Solar Flare Detection  


Federation of American Scientists (VLF): 

Freund, F. (2005) Cracking the Code of Pre-Earthquake Signals:


Geonics Ltd. (Commercial VLF Receivers): 

Georghita, M. et al (2009); Testing a New Installed VLF/LF Radio Receiver […]

Goliath LW Transmitter (Historical): and

Grahn LW/ VLF Antennas (Germany):

Guzel, E. and Canyilmaz, M.: ‘Sub-ionospheric VLF Perturbations […] 



Halley VLF Receiver (British Antarctic Survey):

Hobby Space (Space Radio)


i-LOFAR (Brochure): 

INSPIRE (NASA) Project (including Newsletter): 

Institute of Navigation: 

International LORAN Association (ILA): 

Ionospheric Radio Lab (University of Florida, UF):   


Jacobsen, T: ZEVS, The Russian 82 Hz ELF Transmitter:

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 

Joyce Hinterding:


Kamp, P.-H. (2000) SDR and VLF Time Signals: 

Kavanagh: (2011) Probing Geo-space with VLF Radio Signals:

Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917):

Lapthorn, R. G3XBM (2012): VLF Amateur Radio (Presentation):

LF Engineering: 

Links to VLF Articles

LOFAR (Ireland) 

LOFAR (Low-Frequency Array for Radio Astronomy) 


LOFAR Telescope 

Loran-C (100kHz): 

Lualualei US Navy VLF Transmitter:


Melia, A., and Nichols, S. (2008/09) ‘Understanding LF and HF Propagation’:   

Moore Observatory (USA):

Morgan, D.: The Generation of VLF Emissions by Meteors:

Mother Nature’s Radio (Rob’s Web):


Natural Radio Lab:

Natural Radio/ VLF Discussion Group:  

Navy Shore Station LF & VLF Transmitters (History):

Navy Shore Station LF & VLF Transmitters   


Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

NICT (Japan):

Nwanko, V.U.J: ‘Probing Geomagnetic Storm-Driven Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Dynamics […]’: 


Observing the Atmosphere with VLF Radio: 

Observing the Sun in VLF (Journal of the British Astronomy Association, Vol.118, 3 (2008): 124

Omega Stations: 


Price, C. and Blum, MN. (2000): ELF/VLF Radiation Produced by the 1999 Leonid Meteors:

Project Sanguine:  


Radio Astrolab: 

Radio Communications of German U-Boats in WW1 and WW2 (History):  

Radio Jove: 

Radio Sky Pipe: 

Rault, J.-L. (2000) Searching for Meteor ELF/ VLF Radiation:

Reception of Submarine Communications Systems:

Reeve, W. D. (2010): Application of the UKRAA Very Low Frequency Receiver System:

Reeve, W. D. (2019): Monitoring LF Propagation with an SDR:

Reeve, W.D.: Publications:

Romero, R. Radio Waves Below 2kHz (Italy): 

Royal Institute of Navigation (UK): 

Rugby Radio (History): 

Russian Central Research Institute of Physical and Technical Measurements (VNIIFTRI): 


SAQ (Grimeton) Transmitter (17.2kHz, a UNESCO World Heritage Site) 

SAQrx Software VLF Receiver (SM6LKM): 

Schiffhauer, N. (2018)’ Direction Finding with TDoA on KiwiSDR Net: An Introduction’

Schiffhauer, N. (2015) Observations on the Solar Eclipse (2015):

Schlegel, K. and Füllekrug, M. (2002/ 2007) 50 Years of Schumann Resonance (Physik in unserer Zeit, 33(6), 256-26) 

Schmitter, E.D. (2013) Modelling […] Ionosphere Changes […]; Annales Geophysicae 31:765-773;

Schuman Resonance   

Science Gov (USA):

SFS/TRGRAM (Speech-Spectrogram Display software) :

Singh, R. et al (2009) VLF Studies […] in Indian Low-Latitude Regions […]

Siple (VLF) Station, Antarctica: 

Smiley Antennas (VLF):  

Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers (SARA, USA)  

Spectran (Version2): 

Spectrum Lab:   

Square Kilometre Array 

Stanford VLF Group 

Stations, ITU Licenses and Services below 22 kHz (Renato Romero)

Stormwise Antennas:  (USA and Canada deliveries only)

Sub-9kHz Amateur Radio:  

Submarine Communication (Grimeton Website):


Tesla’s Colorado Springs Lightning Observations:

Twente University WebSDR: 


Ulas, M. et al (2002) Precursors of Earthquakes: VLF Signals-Ionosphere Relation: 


University of Louisville (Moore Observatory): VLF Monitor 

Unknown ELF-Signals and Ground Currents:  

US Navy: VLF, LW and MW (1973): 

US VLF Transmitters:  


VERSIM Group: 

Viehl, E. (2015): Empfang Sehr Langer Wellen (VLF Reception):

VLF & LF Stations List (W.D. Reeve, Alaska):

VLF Amateur Radio Europe:  

VLF Frequency Spectrum 

VLF Live Streams

VLF Poster (British Astronomical Association): 

VLF Propagation 

VLF Receivers: 

VLF Resources (Website-Box):  

VLF Software Options: 

VLF Sounds: 


WADI: Very Low Frequency:  

Westcott, A. (2003): Naturally-Occurring VLF Radio Signals:

Whistler Reception: 

Williams, P. et al (2000) e-Loran and Amateur Radio […]:

World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN): 


XiVero GmbH VLF Software Receiver (Germany):  


ZEVS –Russian 82Hz ELF Transmitter (T. Jacobsen): 



Journals, Newsletters and Magazines:


EOS Magazine (American Geophysical Union):  

INSPIRE Journal (NASA, Archive)

Lowdown (Archive):

Monitoring Times (now: TSM, see below)

Practical Wireless (UK)

RadCom (UK) 

RadioUser (UK) 


SAQ Grimeton Newsletter

Space Weather Quarterly (latest issue)

Spectrum Monitor (USA):  

VERSIM Newsletter



Previously in RadioUser


Gulley, R. (2020) ‘Radio Propagation Banners Explained’, RadioUser, October 2020: 52-56

Newton, P. (2017) VLF in Australia: RadioUser, March 2017: 28-30

(2019) SAQ Grimeton and VLF Monitoring: RadioUser, December 2019: 32-35

Wiessala, G. (2013) Radio in Time and Space – Whistlers, Sferics and Tweeks, RadioUser, January 2013: 8

(2014) Monitoring the Sun Using VLF; RadioUser, April 2014: 54

(2014) Signals from Space and the Radio Sun; RadioUser, February 2014: 54

(2015) VLF: Windows on Our World, and Beyond (Part 1): RadioUser, September 2015: 50

(2016) Submarines and the Sun – On VLF: RadioUser, November 2016: 33

(2018) A Rare Catch: Grimeton SAQ: RadioUser, June 2018: 33

(2018) In the Basement Band: VLF Frequencies: RadioUser, July 2018: 49

(2019) Re-visiting SAQ Grimeton: RadioUser, August 2019: 24.


GW, 23rd November 2020


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