Resources for VLF Monitors

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Aerials for the ELF & VLF Bands

Resources Collection and Further Reading Suggestions for the Article:

'Aerials for the ELF & VLF Bands'

Part 1: RadioUser, January 2022: 51-54

Part 2: RadioUser, March 2022 (pp. TBC)

 

Books and Articles

 

Adams, M. et al (2018) ‘INSPIRE 2017 Solar Eclipse VLF Field Experiment’. INSPIRE Journal, Vol. 24: 19-28

Alexander, David (2009) The Sun (Oxford: Greenwood Press)

AL’ pert, Ya. L. and Fligel, D.S. (1995) Propagation of ELF and VLF Waves Near the Earth (Consultants Bureau)

Altgeld, C.A. (2222) The World’s Largest “Radio” Station (Sanguine) (Broadcaster’s Desktop Resource)

Aplin, K.L. et al (eds.) (2008) Planetary Atmospheric Electricity (Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer) 

 

Barr. R. et al (2000) ‘ELF and VLF Radio Waves’; Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 62 (2000) 1689-1718

Biagi et al (2011) ‘The European VLF/LF Radio Network […]’. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 11: 333-341

Blundell, Stephen (2012) Magnetism. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP)

Burke, B.F. and Graham-Smith, F. (1997) An Introduction to Radio Astronomy (Cambridge: CUP) 

 

Carey, K. (2007) Listening to Longwave (Reynoldsburg/ Ohio: Universal Radio Research)

Carey, K. (2015) More on Natural Radio (The Spectrum Monitor, May 2015: 75-77)

Carlson, W B (2015): Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age (Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press)

Cataldi, G. and D. (2013) Reception of Natural Radio Emissions in the ELF Band (INSPIRE Journal, Vol. 20/ 2013: 12-16)

Cohen, Richard (2010) Chasing the Sun (London: Simon & Schuster)

Cox, T. (2015) Sonic Wonderland: A Scientific Odyssey of Sound (London: Vintage Books)

Cristea, O. et al (2012): ‘Low-Cost Prototype Equipment for VLF Radio Wave Monitoring’ (Acta Technica Napocensis, 53,1: 47-51)

 

Dennison, Mike (G3XDV) (3rd ed., 2013): LF Today: A Guide to Success on the Bands below 1 MHz (Ch. 8; Bedford, RSGB)

Devi, I. et al (2008) VLF ‘Propagation Characteristics in the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide’. Earth-Planets-Space, 60, 737-741

Dolean et al. (2012): Low-Cost Prototype Equipment for VLF Radio Wave Monitoring (Acta Technica Napocensis, 53; 1: 47)

 

Evren Ekmekçi (2004) VLF Antennas: http://www.institutotesla.org/pdf/Tesla-Theory-9.pdf

 

Fielding, J. (2014) ‘Getting Started in Radio Astronomy Part 1’ (RadCom, Vol. 90; No. 11; November 2014: 30-32)

Fielding, J. (ZS5JF) (2011) Amateur Radio Astronomy (Bedford: RSGB)

Friese, W. (2004) ‘Schumann-Resonanzwellen’ […] Funkamateur 11/04: 1111

-- (2004) Sfericsempfang (3 vols, Dessau: Wilhelm Herbst Verlag)

-- (2006) ‘Test des VLF-Power-Ferritmoduls LFM/5-50/24 von BAZ’ (Funkamateur 1/06: 25)

-- (2007) Außergewöhnliche Empfangsantennen (Baden-Baden: Siebel/ vth)

-- (2007) Sferics – Faszinierende Natürliche Radiowellen (Berlin: Funkamateur Library, Vol. 18)

-- (2007) ‘Empfangssysteme zum Detektieren von Gewittern’ (Funkamateur 02/ 2008: 149-51)

 

Funkamateure Dresden DD7NT (2012) SAQ auf Längstwelle (2012)

 

Galejs, J. (1965) ‘Schumann Resonances’ Radio Science Journal of Research NBSjUSNC- URSI Vol. 69D, No.8, August 1965

Goldsmith, M. (2018) Waves. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP)

Golub, L. (2014) Nearest Star: The Surprising Science of Our Sun (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

Gulley, R. (2020) ‘Radio Propagation Banners Explained’ The Spectrum Monitor, May 2020: 21-24; RadioUser, October 2020: 52-56

 

Hancock, M. (2017) The History of Rugby Radio Station (Urban&Civic plc)

Helliwell R.A. (1965/ 2006) Whistlers and Related Ionospheric Phenomena (Mineola, New York: Dover Publications Inc.) 

Hood, T. (2014) ‘In the Beginning’ The Spectrum Monitor, January 2014: 45 (see also: CQ, April 2015: 104)

-- ‘The Ionosphere’ The Spectrum Monitor, February 2015: 62

Hunsucker, R.D. (1991/2011): Radio Techniques for Monitoring the Terrestrial Ionosphere (Springer)

 

Jago, L. (2001): The Northern Lights (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) 

Jian S.; Georgeakopoulos, S. (2011) EM Wave Propagation into Fresh Water; Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 3: 261-266

Judge, P. (2020) The Sun. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP)

 

Kahn, D. (2013) Earth Sound, Earth Signal (Berkeley: University of California Press)

Kanal, S.: The Effect of Solar Flares on the VLF Radio Waves transmitted in the Ionosphere (Presentation)

Kimpfbeck, T. (2007) ‘DX-Empfang vom Schreibtisch aus, mit Ferrit- und Loop-Antennen’ (Funkamateur 8/07: 838)

Klawitter, G. (1991) Langwellen und Längstwellenfunk (Baden-Baden: Siebel/ vth)

 

Lashley, J. (2010) The Radio Sky and How to Observe It (London: Springer) (Chapter 9 on VLF Solar Monitor)

Launius, R.D.; Fleming, J.R. and DeVorkin, D.H. (2010): Globalizing Polar Science (New York: Palgrave/Macmillan)

Lutz, H. (2004) Längstwellenempfang mit dem PC (Marburg: beam-Verlag)

 -- (2013) ‘Low Frequency Propagation’; Dennison, Mike (G3XDV) (3rd ed., 2013): LF Today […] (RSGB): 129-140

 

Melia, A. (2009) ‘Understanding LF Propagation’; Radcom, September 2009: 32; October 2009: 22; November 2009: 32

 

Moldovan et al (2012) The INFREP European VLF/LF Radio Monitoring Network […] Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 64; No.1: 263-274

Moldwin, Mark (2008) An Introduction to Space Weather (Cambridge: CUP) (excellent introduction)

Money, Paul (2012) ‘Sounds of the Aurora’. Sky at Night, November 2012: 44-45

Nelson, Stan (2014): ‘Meteor Detection in the 21st Century (The Spectrum Monitor, February 2014: 61-64)

- ‘The World of Amateur Radio Astronomy’ The Spectrum Monitor, April 2021: 18-21

Newton, Peter (2017): ‘VLF in Australia’. RadioUser, March 2017: 28-30

 

O’Sullivan, S. (2014) ‘Monitoring the Sun Using VLF’ (RadioUser, April 2014: 54-57)

-- (2015) ‘Band II Dxing’ (Radio User, May 2015: 48-51)

 

Palmer, P.I. (2017) The Atmosphere. A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: OUP)

Poole, Ian (2004) Radio Propagation: Principles and Practice (RSGB)

 

Rajagopalen, A.S. et al (2013) ‘Solar Activity Monitoring Through Real-Time Recording of VLF Wave Amplitude’ (International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology; Vol. 3, No.1; October 2013: 253-261

Reeve, W.D. ‘Listening to Jupiter’s Radio Storms’ RadioUser, September 2009: 32 (Part One); October 2009: 34 (Part Two)

--  (2010) ‘Listening to the Sun’s Radio Storms’ RadioUser, March 2010: 34

Richards, J.A. (2008) Radio Wave Propagation (Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer)

Riegler, T. (2007) Radiohören auf Lang- und Mittelwelle (Baden-Baden: Siebel vth ISBN 978-3-88180-663-3)

Romero, Renato (2007) Radio Nature: The Reception and Study of Naturally Originating Radio Signals (RSGB)

 

Schlegel, K. and Füllekrug, M. (2002/ 2007) 50 Years of Schumann Resonance (Physik in unserer Zeit, 33(6), 256-26)

Schneider, D. AD4CC (1994) Mother Nature’s Radio

Singh. H.B. and Pal, R. (1993) Submarine Communications (Defence Science Journal 43; 1: 43-51)

 

Tesla, Nikola (2011): My Inventions and Other Writings (London: Penguin)

Times of India (2014) ‘Navy Gets New Facility to Communicate with Nuclear Submarines Prowling Underwater’ (July 2014)

 

Van Horn, L. (2021) ‘Radio’s Basement Bands’ (in Global Radio Guide 2021)

(2021) ‘The World of Strange Military Signals’, The Spectrum Monitor, January 2021: 33-37 (37)

 

Wallace, J. (2010) Amateur Radio Astronomy Projects – A Whistler Radio (QEX, March/ April 2010: 20-23)

Wei-Yan Pan and Kai Li (2014 ed.): Propagation of SLF/ VLF Electromagnetic Waves (Springer)

Welsh, J. (2012) The Sun, Radcom, October 2012: 38

Wiessala, G (2012): ‘Radio in Time and Space: Time Signal Stations’ (RadioUser, October 2012: 8)

-- ‘Radio in Space and Time – Whistlers, Sferics and Tweeks’ (RadioUser, January 2013: 8-13)

-- Signals from Space and the Radio Sun’ (RadioUser, February 2014: 54-63

-- ‘Develop a Propagation Monitoring Routine; (RadioUser, February 2015: 52-57)

-- ‘VLF: Windows on Our World (and Beyond) Part 1’ (RadioUser, September 2015: 50-55)

-- ‘VLF: Windows on Our World (and Beyond) Part 2’ (RadioUser, January 2016: 52-57)

-- ‘Submarines and the Sun on VLF’ (RadioUser, November 2016: 33-37)

Windridge, M. (2018) Aurora – In Search of the Northern Lights (William Collins).

 

Online Articles and Websites

 

Alexanderson Society: http://alexander.n.se 

Alpha & Omega Stations www.auroralchorus.com/omega.htm 

Alpha Stations: Alpha: www.vlf.it/alphatrond/alpha.htm 

Alvin Lucier: www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxUvMl_IxoQ

American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO): http://www.aavso.org/vlf-station-list

American Meteor Society (AMS): http://www.amsmeteors.org/

American Radio Relay League (ARRL; Experimental VLF): http://www.arrl.org/news/hams-experimental-vlf-signals-heard-in-the-uk-europe  

Anderson, et al (2020) ‘Detection of VLF Attenuation in the EarthIonosphere Waveguide Caused by XClass Solar Flares Using a Global Lightning Location Network’: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1029/2019SW002408

Antennas for VLF: https://www.nslijhs.com/A-COMPACT-VLF-ANTENNA-OPTIMISED-FOR-16-To-24Khz

Anthorn (European LORAN-C Website): http://www.loran-europe.eu/viewpage.php?page_id=24

Argo (Software): http://www.weaksignals.com 

ASTRON: The International LOFAR Telescope: https://www.astron.nl/lofar-telescope/lofar-telescope

Astronomy-Log: List of VLF Transmitters: https://astronomylog.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/vlf-stations-list.pdf 

Audio-Gallery of Meteor Events (AMS): http://www.amsmeteors.org/audio/index.html

Aurora (Auroral Sounds) www.aalto.fi/en/current/current_archive/news/2012-07-09  / http://research.spa.aalto.fi/projects/aurora

Aurora Service Radio: http://www.aurora-service.eu/radio/

Auroral Chorus (Stephen P. McGreevy, USA): http://www.auroralchorus.com 

AWESOME Project: http://nova.stanford.edu/~vlf/IHY_Test/TechDocs/AWESOME%20Transmitters.pdf

 

BAA (Radio Astronomy Group): VLF Observations https://www.britastro.org/radio/vlf.html

Bakker, Roelof (accessed 2015): The PA0RDT-Mini-Whip: http://dl1dbc.net/SAQ/Mwhip/pa0rdt-Mini-Whip.pdf 

BAZ Spezialantennen: http://www.spezialantennen.eu 

Bennett, R. (2000) The INSPIRE VLF-£ Receiver: Theory of Operation: https://tinyurl.com/qfbcm9j

Beta Stations: www.vlf.it/russianvlf/russianvlf.htm 

Bianchi, C. and Meloni, A. (2007) Terrestrial Natural and Man-Made Electromagnetic Noise: https://tinyurl.com/y8gmyvuk

Bradley, M. (2013) Monitoring Solar Flares by Radio Astronomy: https://tinyurl.com/yb9vw454

Butler, L. VK5BR (187) Understanding Underwater Radio Communication: http://users.tpg.com.au/ldbutler/Underwater_Communication.pdf

 

Cestron (VLF Systems for Submarine Communication):http://www.cestron.de/VLF-Systems

Clam Lake, Wisconsin: http://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/c3i/fs_clam_lake_elf2003.pdf

CQDL (Germany) 2012: 648

 

Detection of Whistlers in Belgium (Poster): http://plasmon.elte.hu/publication/4.poster-conference-presentations/Darrouzet.pdf

Deutscher Amateur Radio Klub e.V. (VLF Reception): http://www.darc-c03.de/bastelprojekte-c03/146-saq

Drumgrange Communications www.drumgrange.com/product-areas/vlf-communications.aspx 

DST Index (NOAA) www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/GEOMAG/dst.html     

Dual-Frequency Observations of Diurnal Fading on DHO38: http://df6nm.bplaced.net/VLF/2006/vlf_DHO_dualfreq.htm

 

Earth Current Communications: https://pe2bz.philpem.me.uk/Comm/-%20ELF-VLF/-%20ELF-Theory/Th-115-EarthCurrents/com.pdf

Eddy, J. A. (2017) The Sun, the Earth and Near-Earth Space (NASA): https://tinyurl.com/yc9kpwbj

Ekmekçi, E. (2004): VLF Antennas (Nikola Tesla Institute): http://www.institutotesla.org/pdf/Tesla-Theory-9.pdf  

Electronics Gallery of VLF Signals: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Electronics/Gallery_of_VLF-signals

ELF and VLF Frequency Guide: http://www.vlf.it/trond2/list.html

ELF Clam Lake Fact Sheet: https://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/c3i/fs_clam_lake_elf2003.pdf

ELF Signals: http://www.vlf.it/kurt/elf.html

e-LORAN Definition Document: http://ila.rin.org.uk/otherarchives/2007%20eLoran%20Definition%20Document-1.0.pdf

European Industrial Heritage Association (EIHA): https://www.erih.net

European Loran-C Network: http://www.loran-europe.eu/news.php

Exeter Observatory (VLF) Solar Flare Detection http://www.exeterobservatory.com/vlf-solar-flare-detection/

 

Federation of American Scientists (VLF): http://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/c3i/vlf.htm 

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Freund, F. (2005) Cracking the Code of Pre-Earthquake Signals: https://www.space.com/1695-cracking-code-pre-earthquake-signals.html

From 50 to 500 kHz (some in German): http://www.db9ja.de/bandplan-bis500khz.html

 

Gallagher, D. (2021) ‘INSPIRE VLF-3 Receiver Notes’ (INSPIRE Journal, Vol. 25, Spring 2021: 35)

- ‘Sounds of Mars Helicopter Captured During Fourth Flight on 30 April 2021’ (INSPIRE Journal Vol. 25, Spring 2021: 14)

Geonics Ltd. (Commercial VLF Receivers): http://www.geonics.com/html/vlfsystems.html 

Georghita, M. et al (2009); Testing a New Installed VLF/LF Radio Receiver […] https://tinyurl.com/y8e3dueh

Goliath LW Transmitter (Historical): www.cdvandt.org/goliath.htm and http://uboat.net/articles/35.html

Grahn LW/ VLF Antennas (Germany): http://www.grahn-spezialantennen.de/index.html

Guzel, E. and Canyilmaz, M.: ‘Sub-ionospheric VLF Perturbations […] https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.2733175 

 

Halley VLF Receiver (British Antarctic Survey): https://www.bas.ac.uk/polar-operations/sites-and-facilities/facility/halley/vlf-receiver

Hobby Space (Space Radio) http://www.hobbyspace.com/Radio/radio2.html

 

i-LOFAR (Brochure): http://lofar.ie/i-lofar-brochure-launched 

INSPIRE (NASA) Project (including Newsletter): http://theinspireproject.org 

Institute of Navigation: http://www.ion.org 

International LORAN Association (ILA): http://www.loran.org 

Ionospheric Radio Lab (University of Florida, UF): www.vlf.ece.ufl.edu   

 

Jacobsen, T: ZEVS, The Russian 82Hz ELF Transmitter: www.vlf.it/zevs/zevs.htm

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13646826 

Joyce Hinterding: www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Zls3R3pMwk

 

Kamp, P.-H. (2000) SDR and VLF Time Signals:  https://www.tapr.org/pdf/DCC2003-SDR-WWVB-Kamp.pdf 

Kavanagh: (2011) Probing Geo-space with VLF Radio Signals: https://tinyurl.com/ptr7z7g

Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917): www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/sphaera/issue7/articl6.htm

Lapthorn, R. G3XBM (2012): VLF Amateur Radio (Presentation): https://tinyurl.com/y7j2e4lt

LF Engineering: www.lfengineering.com 

Links to VLF Articles http://www.science.gov/topicpages/v/vlf+radio+wave.html

LOFAR (Ireland) http://www.lofar.ie 

LOFAR (Low-Frequency Array for Radio Astronomy) http://www.lofar.org 

LOFAR (UK) http://www.lofar-uk.org 

LOFAR Telescope http://www.astron.nl/general/lofar/lofar 

LORAN (Milestone): https://timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-air/navigation-at-war/new-era-in-time-and-navigation/loran

Loran-C (100kHz): http://www.loran-history.info 

Lualualei US Navy VLF Transmitter: http://lualualei1959.com/newpix/lllvhf.htm

 

Meinberg List of Time Signal Transmitters: https://www.meinbergglobal.com/english/glossary/time-signal-transmitter.htm  

Melia, A., and Nichols, S. (2008/09) ‘Understanding LF and HF Propagation’: http://tinyurl.com/24yck6w   

 

Michlmayr, H. (2000?): Magnetic Antennae [sic] for ULF: http://www.vlf.it/inductor/inductor.htm

Morgan, D.: The Generation of VLF Emissions by Meteors: https://tinyurl.com/y98z4z34

Mother Nature’s Radio (Rob’s Web): http://www.robkalmeijer.nl/techniek/electronica/radiotechniek/hambladen/qst/1994/01/page49/index.html

MWLIST VLF Broadcast: www.mwlist.org/vlf.php 

 

Natural Radio Lab: http://naturalradiolab.com

Natural Radio/ VLF Discussion Group: https://groups.io/g/VLF

Navy Shore Station LF & VLF Transmitters (History): www.virhistory.com/navy/xmtr-vlf.htm

Navy Shore Station LF & VLF Transmitters http://www.virhistory.com/navy/xmtr-vlf.htm

Navy VLF Stations http://blackradios.terryo.org/documents/publications/e-ELF.pdf 

NDB List Website: Solar Section http://www.ndblist.info/solar.htm

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) http://www.astron.nl/

NICT (Japan): www.nict.go.jp/en/data/nict-news/index.html#block_top1

Nwanko, V.U.J: ‘Probing Geomagnetic Storm-Driven Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Dynamics […]’: https://tinyurl.com/ybyslrcv 

 

Observing the Atmosphere with VLF Radio: http://abelian.org/sid 

Observing the Sun in VLF (NASA): http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/2008JBAA..118..124C

Omega Stations: www.auroralchorus.com/omega.htm 

 

Peterson, G. ‘Tesla's Colorado Springs Lightning Observations’: http://www.tfcbooks.com/articles/tws6.htm

Prazeres, A. (2021) ‘” Natural Radio” as a Didactic Alternative in Wave Physics’ (INSPIRE Journal, Vol. 25, Spring 2021: 29)

Price, C. and Blum, MN. (2000): ELF/VLF Radiation Produced by the 1999 Leonid Meteors: https://leonid.arc.nasa.gov/MS025.pdf

Project ‘Sanguine’: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Sanguine   

 

Radio Astrolab: http://www.radioastrolab.com/radio-astronomy/bands-elf-vlf-lf-and-nature-radio 

Radio Communications of German U-Boats in WW1 and WW2 (History): http://uboat.net/articles/35.html  

Radio Jove: http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov 

Radio Sky Pipe: www.radiosky.com/skypipeishere.html 

Rault, J.-L. (2000) Searching for Meteor ELF/ VLF Radiation: https://www.imo.net/imcs/imc2009/pdf/rault_imc2009.pdf

Reception of Submarine Communications Systems: www.vlf.it/submarine/sbmarine.html

Reeve, W. (2010): Application of the UKRAA Very Low Frequency Receiver System: https://tinyurl.com/q5dltk7

Romero, R. Radio Waves Below 2kHz (Italy): http://www.vlf.it 

Royal Institute of Navigation (UK): http://www.rin.org.uk 

Rugby Radio (History): http://www.xeropage.co.uk/g3nyk/rugbyrs.htm 

Russian Central Research Institute of Physical and Technical Measurements (VNIIFTRI): http://www.vniiftri.ru/index.php/en 

 

SAQ (Grimeton) Transmitter (17.2kHz, a UNESCO World Heritage Site) http://alexander.n.se 

SAQrx Software VLF Receiver (SM6LKM):  https://sites.google.com/site/sm6lkm/saqrx 

Schiffhauer, N. (2015) Observations on the Solar Eclipse (2015): www.satsignal.eu/Radio/Solar_Eclipse_DK8OK.pdf

Schlegel, K. and Füllekrug, M. (2002/ 2007) 50 Years of Schumann Resonance (Physik in unserer Zeit, 33(6), 256-26) 

Schmitter, E.D. (2013) Modelling Solar Flare Induced Lower Ionosphere Changes […]; Annales Geophysicae 31:765-773; https://tinyurl.com/y97r45tf

Schuman Resonance www.vlf.it/Schumann/schumann.htm   

Science Gov (USA): www.science.gov/topicpages/v/vlf+radio+wave.html

SFS/TRGRAM: www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/resource/sfs/rtgram

SID Monitoring Station A118 http://sidstation.loudet.org/stations-list-en.xhtml 

SID Monitors and Stations www.smeter.net/stations/vlf-stations.php 

Singh, R. et al (2009) VLF Studies […] in Indian Low-Latitude Regions […] https://tinyurl.com/y8v4ckh4

Siple (VLF) Station, Antarctica: http://vlf.stanford.edu/research/vlf-transmitter-siple-station-antarctica 

Smiley Antennas (VLF): www.smileyantenna.com 

Society of Amateur Radio Astronomers (SARA, USA) http://www.radio-astronomy.org 

Spectran (Version2): http://www.sdradio.eu/weaksignals/spectran.html 

Spectrum Lab: www.qsl.net/dl4yhf/spectra1.html    

Square Kilometre Array http://www.skatelescope.org 

Stanford VLF Group http://vlf.stanford.edu/research/introduction-vlf 

Stations, ITU Licenses and Services below 22 kHz (Renato Romero) http://www.vlf.it/itulist/itulist.htm

Stormwise Antennas: www.stormwise.com 

Sub-9kHz Amateur Radio: https://sites.google.com/site/sub9khz  

Submarine Communication (Grimeton Website): http://www.grimeton.info/submarine_communication.html

 

Tesla’s Colorado Springs Lightning Observations: http://www.tfcbooks.com/articles/tws6.htm

Time Signal Stations www.meinbergglobal.com/english/glossary/time-signal-transmitter.htm  

Twente University WebSDR: http://websdr.ewi.utwente.nl:8901 

 

UDXF: VLF Guide (2001): http://www.udxf.nl/ELF-VLF-GUIDE-v1.0.pdf 

UK Radio Astronomy Association (UKRAA, Radio Astronomy Group) http://www.britastro.org/radio   

Ulas, M. et al (2002) Precursors of Earthquakes: VLF Signals-Ionosphere Relation: https://tinyurl.com/yddez3mg 

UNESCO: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1134

University of Louisville (Moore Observatory): VLF Monitor http://moondog.astro.louisville.edu/index.html 

Unknown ELF-Signals and Ground Currents: www.vlf.it/kurt/elf.html  

US Navy: VLF, LW and MW (1973): http://www.navy-radio.com/manuals/0101-1xx/0101_113-02.pdf 

US VLF Transmitters: http://fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/c3i/vlf.htm  

Utility-DXers Forum: http://www.udxf.nl/ELF-VLF-GUIDE-v1.0.pdf  

 

VERSIM Group: http://www.iugg.org/IAGA/iaga_ursi/versim/index.html 

Viehl, H. (2015): Empfang Sehr Langer Wellen www.viehl-radio.de/homeda/vlf.html

Viehl, H. (DK8AR) LW Antennas and other Presentations (German): https://www.viehl-radio.de/homeda/dk8ar.html

VLF ‘Whistler’ Reception: http://www.techlib.com/electronics/vlfwhistle.htm

VLF Amateur Radio Europe: www.amateurradio.eu/tag/vlf  

VLF Broadcast (10-150 kHz): www.mwlist.org/vlf.php?kHz=27.30 

VLF Frequency Spectrum https://physics.info/em-spectrum 

VLF Live Streams http://abelian.org/vlf

VLF Poster (British Astronomical Association): www.britastro.org/radio/downloads/VLF%20Poster.pdf 

VLF Propagation http://lasp.colorado.edu/space_weather/dsttemerin/dsttemerin.html 

VLF Receivers: www.naturalradiolab.com 

VLF Resources (Website-Box): http://website-box.net/se-keyword/vlf+receiver  

VLF Software Options: https://sites.google.com/site/sub9khz/software 

VLF Sounds: http://www.spaceweather.com/glossary/inspire.html 

VLF Stations (SID) http://sidstation.loudet.org/stations-list-en.xhtml

VLF Stations List (AAVSO): https://www.aavso.org/vlf-station-list

VLF Stations: S-Meter Site: http://www.smeter.net/stations/vlf-stations.php

 

WADI: Very Low Frequency:  http://quality-geophysics.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/QG-Method-VLF-Wadi.pdf 

Westcott, A. (2003): Naturally-Occurring VLF Radio Signals: http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/andyspatch/vlf.htm

Wikipedia List of VLF Transmitters: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_VLF-transmitters

Williams, P. et al (2000) e-Loran and Amateur Radio […]: http://www.professordavidlast.co.uk/cms_items/f20090301150839.pdf

World Frequency List 10-100 kHz: http://www.h4.dion.ne.jp/~ja5fp/VLFList.pdf 

World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN): http://wwlln.net/new 

 

XiVero GmbH VLF Software Receiver (Germany): www.xivero.com/vlfreceiver  

 

ZEVS –Russian 82Hz ELF Transmitter (T. Jacobsen): www.vlf.it/zevs/zevs.htm 

 

Journals, Newsletters and Magazines:

 

EOS Magazine (American Geophysical Union): https://eos.org/current-issues  

Funkempfang.de: http://www.hurcks.de  

INSPIRE Journal (NASA, Archive) https://theinspireproject.org/default.asp?contentID=21

Lowdown (Archive): http://naturalradiolab.com/lowdown-archive

Monitoring Times (now: TSM, see below)

Practical Wireless (UK) www.radioenthusiast.co.uk

RadCom (UK) http://rsgb.org/mai 

RadioUser (UK) www.radioenthusiast.co.uk 

RagaZine https://www.britastro.org/radio/downloads.html

 

SAQ Grimeton Newsletter https://alexander.n.se/category/news/?lang=en

Space Weather Quarterly https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/swq.24 (latest issue)

The Spectrum Monitor (USA): https://www.thespectrummonitor.com  

VERSIM Newsletter www.iugg.org/IAGA/iaga_ursi/versim/newsletter.html

 

GW

25th January 2022